THEORIA | the vocabulary of the visual construct

Theoria is Thinking … to describe knowledge in the form of words.

3d modelling

3d modelling 3D modeling (or three-dimensional modeling) is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object in three dimensions via specialized software.


actions are an intentional, purposive, conscious and subjectively meaningful activity. Desire and belief jointly cause the action.


addition to add something to something else.

aerial perspective

aerial perspective  or atmospheric perspective is a technique for rendering depth or distance by muting the hue, tone, and distinctness of objects perceived as receding from the...


Aerography is a surrealist method in which a stencil used in spraypainting is replaced by a three-dimensional object.

Amman tiling

Amman tiling is an aperiodic set of two tiles and a foursome of ‘golden rhombohedra’, which form aperiodic tilings in three dimensions. The best-known Ammann...

analytical drawing

analytical drawing relates to the drawing of lines to represent the three-dimensional structure and geometry of a form, proceeding generally from the whole to the...


analytique is an elevation drawing of a façade, surrounded by a decorative arrangement of drawings of important details and sometimes a plan or section of...


anamorphosis Anamorphosis is a distorted image that appears in natural form only when viewed at a special angle or reflected from a curved mirror.


annulus or little ring, is a ring-shaped object, a region bounded by two concentric circles.


arbelos is a plane region bounded by three semicircles connected at the corners, all on the same side of a straight line (the baseline) that contains their diameters.

Archimedean spiral

Archimedean spiral The Archimedean spiral, or arithmetic spiral, is a spiral named after the 3rd century BC Greek mathematician Archimedes. It is the locus of points corresponding to the locations over time of...

area plan

area plan Area plan is a plan showing the principal elements of a design project in the wider context of its surrounding environment.


array an ordered series or arrangement. ©Bea Martin


assemblage a three-dimensional construct…


astroid A particular mathematical curve: a hypocycloid with four cusps. Specifically, it is the locus of a point on a circle as it rolls inside a fixed circle with four...

automatic drawing

Automatic drawing  was developed by the surrealists, as a means of expressing the subconscious. In automatic drawing, the hand is allowed to move ‘randomly’ across the...


axonometric Axonometric is a paraline drawing of an axonometric projection, having all lines parallel to the three principal axes drawn to scale but diagonal and curved...


behaviours The way in which something acts and or reacts in response to a particular situation or stimulus.


bend to move in a way so that it is not straight. ©Bea Martin


branch to form something by forcing or pushing it out.


Bulletism  is shooting ink at a blank piece of paper, then developing images based on what is seen.

cabinet drawing

Cabinet drawing is a paraline drawing of an oblique projection, having all lines parallel to the picture plane drawn to exact scale, and the receding lines...


calligramme  is a text or poem of a type developed by Guillaume Apollinaire in which the words or letters make up a shape, particularly a shape connected to the...


cardioid A heart-like form, is a plane curve traced by a point on the perimeter of a circle that is rolling around a fixed circle of the same...


carve to cut in order to produce an object…

cavalier drawing

Cavalier drawing is a paraline drawing of an oblique projection, having the receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane drawn to the same scale as the...


circle a round plane figure whose boundary – the circumference – consists of points equidistant from a fixed point the centre.


coil to move in a circular or spiral course. ©Bea Martin


collage is the assemblage of different forms creating a new whole.


combinations a way of selecting items from a collection, such that the order of selection does not matter.


compositions the nature of something’s ingredients or constituents; the way in which a whole or mixture is made up.


compress to flatten, squeeze or press by pressure…

conception drawing

conception drawing Conception is a drawing of something that does not exist yet.


conditions the state of something with regard to its appearance, quality, or working order.


connect to associate or relate (something) in some respect…


connections a relationship in which things are linked or associated with something else…

construction drawing

Construction drawings also called contract drawings or working drawings, are the portion of the contract documents showing accurate graphic or pictorial form the design, location,...

contour drawing

Contour drawing  is a technique of drawing lines to represent the contours of a subject, without shading or modelling of form.


cracking to form something by forcing or pushing it out.

cross-contour drawing

©Bea Martin cross-contour drawing Cross-contour drawing is the technique of drawing lines to represent a series of cuts across the surface of a form rather than its...


crossing the act of traversing or traveling across…


crossovers a point or place of crossing from one side to the other.


crumple to press or crush into irregular folds or into a compact mass, to bend out of shape, rumple, or wrinkle…


cube a solid object with six square sides of equal size.


cubomania a surrealist method of making collages in which a picture or image is cut into squares and the squares are then reassembled without regard for the original image, either automatically...


Cutaway a drawing or model having an outer section removed to display its interior.


decagon is a ten-sided polygon or 10-gon. A regular decagon has all sides of equal length and each internal angle will always be equal to 144°.

deltoid curve

deltoid curve a hypocycloid of three cusps. In other words, it is the roulette created by a point on the circumference of a circle as it rolls without slipping along...

descriptive geometry

descriptive geometry the theory of making projections of three-dimensional objects on a plane surface in order to deduce their geometric properties and relationships.

design drawing

design drawing Any of the drawings made to aid in the visualisation, exploration, and evaluation of a concept in the design process.


detours a longer, less direct way to get where you’re going; rerouting.


diagram a simplified drawing showing the appearance, structure, or workings of something; a schematic representation.


digital artistic work using digital technology as an essential part of the creative or presentation process…


digital/mixed combining digital and analog tools and techniques…


displacement to move (something) from its proper or usual position.


dodecagon or 12-gon is any twelve-sided polygon. A regular dodecagon is a figure with sides of the same length and internal angles of the same size. It has...


draft  is a preliminary sketch of a design or plan, typically one subject to revision


drafting Drafting or mechanical drawing is a drawing done with the aid of such instruments as T-squares, triangles, compasses, and scales, specifically for the systemic representation...


effects a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

elevation drawing

elevation drawing an elevation is an orthographic projection of an object or structure on a vertical picture plane parallel to one of its sides


ellipse a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the...


embed to form something by forcing or pushing it out.


©Bea Martin encounters to unexpectedly be faced with or experience something.


entangled to cause to become twisted together with or caught in…


esquisse Esquisse is a sketch showing the general features of a design or plan.


expanding to make larger or more extensive…

exploded view

exploded view an exploded view, or expanded view, is a drawing that shows the individual parts of a structure or construction separately but Indicates their proper...


exposures the fact of experiencing something or being affected by it because of being in a particular situation or place


extract to remove or take out…


extrude to form something by forcing or pushing it out.


flocking to form something by forcing or pushing it out.


folding to bring into a compact form by bending and laying parts together…


fracture to break or cause to break.

freehand drawing

freehand drawing Freehand drawing is the art, process, or technique of drawing by hand without the aid of drafting tools or mechanical divides, in order to...

gesture drawing

gesture drawing Gesture drawing is a technique of drawing a single or multiple lines freely and quickly as a subject is visualised and perceptions of volume,...

golden section

golden section The division of a line so that the whole is to the greater part as that part is to the smaller part (i.e....


grade a step or stage in a course or process……

grading plan

grading plan a plan showing the proposed finish contours and elevations of the ground surface of a construction site.


grid A grid is a framework of spaced bars that are parallel to or cross each other; a grating.


group to put together or considered as a unit.


hand drawn the art, process, or technique of drawing by hand…


hendecagon undecagon, endecagon, or 11-gon is an eleven-sided polygon. A regular hendecagon has internal angles of 147.27 degrees.


heptagon is a seven-sided polygon or 7-gon. A regular heptagon, in which all sides and all angles are equal, has internal angles of 5π/7 radians (128​4⁄7 degrees). also: septagon


hexadecagon hexakaidecagon, or 16-gon is a sixteen-sided polygon. A regular hexadecagon is a hexadecagon in which all angles are equal and all sides are congruent.


hexagon a shape with six straight sides.

hybrid drawing

hybrid drawing any drawing that mixes and superimposes a variety of ideas, techniques or media into a new, meaningful image


icosagon or 20-gon, is a twenty-sided polygon. The sum of any icosagon’s interior angles is 3240 degrees.


inflate to increase (something) by a large or excessive amount. ©Bea Martin


inscribing to mark in a conspicuous way…


instants an extremely short period of time, a moment.


intensities the measurable amount of a property... ©Bea Martin


interlock to fit together firmly ©Bea Martin


intersect the area where two or more spaces join or cross each other. ©Bea Martin


interstices the space between things or events.

irregular shape

irregular shape A polygon that does not have all sides equal and all angles equal


isometric Isometric comes from the Greek for “having equal measurement”. Isometric projection or isometric perspective is an axonometric projection of a three-dimensional object having its principal faces equally inclined to...


juxtaposition to place close together two things being seen with contrasting effect…


layers one thickness, course, or fold laid or lying over or under another.


lifting to raise to a higher position or level…


line a long, thin mark on the surface of something / A line is the edge or contour of a shape / In drawing, a line is a thin, continuous mark made...


lodge to become firmly embedded in a place…


loop to enfold or encircle in or with something arranged in a loop…


masterplan a comprehensive urban plan of action


matters the conversion of something from one form or medium into another.


memories the faculty by which the mind stores and remembers information.


merge combine or cause to combine to form a single entity.

military perspective

military perspective in a military projection, the horizontal sections are isometrically drawn so that the floor plans are not distorted and the verticals are drawn at...


mirroring to form something by forcing or pushing it out.

mixed media

mixed media employing more than one medium…


motions the action or process of moving or being moved.


nonagon  or enneagon, is a nine-sided polygon or 9-gon. A regular nonagon has internal angles of 140°.


notch to make an indentation or incision on an edge or surface. ©Bea Martin


NURBs Non-uniform rational basis splines (NURBs) are curves and surfaces that introduce precision to the description of free-form surfaces. A NURBs curve is defined by its...


objects anything that has a fixed shape or form and that can be known or perceived by the mind.


octagon a plane figure with eight straight sides and eight angles


offset to change the amount or distance by which something is out of line.

one-point perspective

One-point perspective is a linear perspective of a rectangular object or volume having a principal face parallel with the picture plane so that the vertical...


operations the way that the parts of a system work together, or the process of making parts of a system work together.

orthographic drawings

orthographic projection is a way of drawing an 3D object from different directions. Usually a front, side and plan view is drawn so that a person looking...


oval having a rounded and slightly elongated outline or shape like that of an egg


overlap to cover something partly by going over its edge or to cover part of the same space.


packing the action or process of filling or stuffing something…

paraline obliques

paraline obliques a paraline oblique is a paraline drawing of an oblique projection, having all lines and faces parallel to the picture plane drawn to exact scale, and all...


patterns a regular and intelligible form or sequence discernible in the way in which something happens or is done


pentagon a plane figure with five straight sides and five angles.


pentagram pentalpha, pentangle or star pentagon, is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes. also: pentalpha, pentangle, star pentagon


perceptions the conversion of something from one form or medium into another.

perspective drawing

perspective drawing any various techniques for representing three-dimensional objects and spatial relationships on a two-dimensional surface as they might appear to the eye also: linear perspective / perspective drawing / perspective...


pinch to grip tightly and sharply…


plan a plan is an orthographic projection of the top or section of an object or structure on a horizontal plane


plane a flat or level surface that continues in all directions.


point a small, round mark on a line, plan, or map to show the position of something.


possibilities something that you can choose to do in a particular situation.


pull to draw or haul toward oneself or itself, in a particular direction, or into a particular position…


puncture to make a small hole or a perforation on something. ©Bea Martin


reactions a behaviour, a feeling or an action that is a direct result of something else. ©Bea Martin


relations the relationships that exist between subjects and events.


rendering a rendering is a drawing, especially a perspective, of a building or interior space, artistically delineating materials, shades, and shadows, usually done for the purpose of presentation.


repetition to repeat, or the recurrence of an action or event.


ripping …to tear or pull (something) quickly or forcibly apart.


rotate the movement in a circle around a fixed point. ©Bea Martin

section drawing

section drawing a section is an orthographic projection of an object or structure as it would appear if cut through by an intersecting plane to show its...


shape the external form, contours, or outline of something.


shear to break off or cause to break off…


shift move or cause to move from one place to another…


sketch A sketch is a simply or hastily executed drawing representing the essential features of an object or scene without the details often made as a preliminary...


skew to suddenly change direction or position…


sphere an object shaped like a round ball.


spiraling to continuously go around a fixed point or center while constantly receding from or approaching it…


split to (cause to) divide into two or more parts, especially along a particular line.

square pyramid

square pyramid a pyramid having a square base. If the apex is perpendicularly above the center of the square, it will have C4v symmetry.

star polygon

star polygon is a type of non-convex polygon. A regular star pentagon, {5/2}, has five corner vertices and intersecting edges. also: concave decagon

study drawing

study drawing A drawing executed as an educational exercise, produced as a preliminary to a final work, or made to record observations.


subtraction to remove objects from a collection.


superellipse a closed curve resembling the ellipse, retaining the geometric features of semi-major axis and semi-minor axis, and symmetry about them, but a different overall shape. also: Lamé curve


systems a set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network; a complex whole.


taper to become gradually narrower at one end, or to make something do this.


tetrahedron in geometry, a tetrahedron, also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners....

three-point perspective

three-point perspective also: mechanical drawing three-point perspective linear perspective in which parallel lines along the width of an object meet at two separate points on the horizon and...


tiling to cover in a modular and repetitive way…


transformations a complete change in the appearance or character of something.


translations the conversion of something from one form or medium into another.


triangle a flat shape with three straight sides.

triangular prism

triangular prism A triangular prism is a three-sided prism; it is a polyhedron made of a triangular base, a translated copy, and 3 faces joining corresponding sides. A right triangular prism has rectangular sides, otherwise, it is oblique. A uniform...


twist to turn something, mostly repeatedly, or to turn or wrap one thing around another. ©Bea Martin

two-point perspective

two-point perspective Two-point perspective is a linear perspective of a rectangular object or volume having two principal faces oblique to the picture plane, so that vertical...


vignette is a drawing that is shaded off gradually into the surrounding paper so as to leave no definite line at the border

Voronoi diagram

Voronoi diagram is the division of a space into contiguous neighbouring cells. The cells relate to a set of points ( Voronoi sites) in that space....

Weaire-Phelan model

Weaire-Phelan model A regular assembly of two types of irregular polyhedral cells with twelve and fourteen faces, respectively, combined in the ratio of 2:6 in...


weaving to interlace from a number of interconnected elements.…


wordings the way in which something is expressed